Temperance Movement

Temperance movements have a long tradition in the United States, with the aim to not only eliminate drinking but to also improve the fabric of America. The first temperance society formed in 1789 in Connecticut and throughout the 19th century they spread across the country.[1] By 1841 there were 26 temperance and abstinence societies operating in Philadelphia alone.[2] One of those societies was the Total Abstinence Society, a Catholic organization founded in 1840 by an Augustinian priest named Moriarty.

Our Mother of Sorrows Total Abstinence Society http://omeka.pahrc.net/items/show/7090

Our Mother of Sorrows Total Abstinence Society
https://omeka.chrc-phila.org/items/show/7090

Increasingly Catholic temperance societies become more popular, partly due to the effects of Father Matthew, a priest who helped start the temperance movement in Ireland and then traveled America from 1849-1851 to spread the cause.[3] With the growth in local societies, usually based around either parishes or dioceses, the need for a unifying national organization arose. So in 1872 in Baltimore, a national convention was held with 177 societies representing over 26,000 members.[4] It was here that the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America (CTAU) was formed to help in establishing directives for both temperance and benevolence activities. An interesting side note, the proposed name first included “of the United States” instead “of America” but objections from Canadian societies also in attendance resulted in the change.[5]

Members of the union pledged to “abstain from… the sin of intemperance” and to “change the wretched abode of the drunkard into a home of peace and prosperity,” highlighting the belief that drinking not only threatened the salvation of the soul but also endangered the functioning of society.[6] In addition to the national union, many societies also created regional unions as well. For instance, the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of the Diocese of Philadelphia formed in March of 1872, comprising of two societies and 150 members.[7]

Catholic Total Abstinence Union http://omeka.pahrc.net/items/show/7025

Catholic Total Abstinence Union
https://omeka.chrc-phila.org/items/show/7025

In order to fulfill its mission and pledge, the CTAU relied on public rallies in order to gain support and convince people to give up alcohol. In addition, the union made use of numerous newspapers, such as Boston’s The Pilot or New York’s Catholic Society Journal of America in order to spread the message of temperance.[8] Another way that the CTAU and other temperance societies tried to increase abstinence was through the building of public drinking fountains, as they believed that better access to clean water would keep the poor from turning to beer and liquor. Indeed, a fountain in New York declared that “There is no poison in my cup! Drink and Live,” which illustrates the concern that without clean water to drink, the people would continue to drink the poison of alcohol.[9] (The building of the most famous CTAU fountain, the Continental Fountain will be discussed in a future blog.)

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CTAU printed material, AC0077 CHRC

The membership of the CTAU continued to grow during its early years, gaining an additional 400 society branches by 1876. However, the following year the union complained about a fall in per capita members, blaming it on the growing acceptance of abstinence and thus decrease in need for the societies.[10] This decrease likely influenced the CTAU’s decision to allow women societies to become honorary members in 1878 and then full active members by 1880; although they had to send male delegates to the annual convention.[11] Membership began to increase by the turn of the century, with over 1,000 societies associated with the CTAU, giving them a membership of over 66,000.[12]

President Roosevelt speaking before C.T.A.U. delegates and United Mine Workers of America http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2013647511/resource/

President Roosevelt speaking before C.T.A.U. delegates and United Mine Workers of America
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2013647511/resource/

One of the largest events held by the CTAU was the 1905 annual convention in Wilkes-Barre, PA when President Teddy Roosevelt spoke as the keynote to over 80,000 people. The Catholic Total Abstinence Union continued have its annual meetings even after the passing of the 18th amendment, which outlawed the production and sale of alcohol. After the 21st amendment repealed Prohibition, the CTAU continued to function well into the mid twentieth century. While total abstinence failed to take hold as national policy, the rise of temperance societies, including Catholic Total Abstinence Union, are an important chapter in the history of the United States.

Annual Convention, Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America, August 9, 1939  http://omeka.pahrc.net/items/show/6871

Annual Convention, Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America, August 9, 1939
https://omeka.chrc-phila.org/items/show/6871

To learn more of the CTAU come to the archives to see the papers, ephemera, and photos. See our online catalog for a list of material.

  • [1] Joseph Gibbs, History of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America, (Philadelphia: 1907), 11.
  • [2] Daria Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force: The Catholic Total Abstinence Union of American Centennial Fountain,” Master’s Thesis (University of Pennsylvania, 2002), 47.
  • [3] Ibid., 47.
  • [4] Ibid., 49.
  • [5] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 19.
  • [6] Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force,” 49.
  • [7] Ibid. 50.
  • [8] Ibid., 51.
  • [9] Ibid., 53.
  • [10] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 42 & 44.
  • [11] Ibid., 49 & 58.
  • [12] Ibid., 159.

The Centennial Fountain

(This post follows up on the last blog about the history of the Temperance Movement)

With the approach of the centennial celebrations in Philadelphia to mark the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of the Diocese of Philadelphia wanted to partake in the festivities. To do so, the organization proposed building a fountain in Fairmount Park to celebrate temperance, Catholicism, and Irish-heritage. In order to accomplish this plan, in 1873 the group brought a proposal forward at the third annual convention for Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America (CTAU). The resolution passed with the stated goal of the fountain being a “testimony to the patriotic feeling of the Catholic Total Abstainers all over the United States.”[1]

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CHRC Catholic Standard, March 25, 1876, SB1, page 224

With the approval and backing of the national society, the Philadelphia chapter began planning and fundraising. After an original design focusing on the connection between America and Ireland was rejected, a main theme around Moses striking the rock to give water to the Israelites was chosen.[2] The change was due to the Moses allegory of life giving water being better focused on the CTAU’s mission to encourage people to turn away from alcohol. While the main Irish American connection was removed, the CTAU incorporated it into other elements including four statues of famous Irish-Catholics in American history. The men chosen for this honor were Commodore John Barry, founder of the United States Navy, Archbishop John Carroll, first Bishop of Baltimore, Father Matthew, founder of the total abstinence movement in Ireland and America, and Charles Carroll, signer of the Declaration of Independence.[3]

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The committee in charge of the fountain began to accept proposals for the statues in October of 1874. They choose Herman Kirn, a German sculptor, to create the five statues by April 1876 agreeing to pay $10,275 for the work.[4] Since there was only two years to complete the project, the committee also hired contractors for other parts of the fountain, such as Hobbs and Sons for the structures, basins, and pedestals and Comber and Co for the granite work.[5] Work began on the fountain on July 5th 1875 with the groundbreaking, giving the workers only a year to finish the construction.

In order to pay for the project, the Philadelphia chapter of the CTAU began to have public rallies to raise donations. While they were able to raise $11,000 by 1875, the committee still needed more money and so reached out to the CTAU for support.[6] However, many other societies in the CTAU were reluctant to fundraise for the project because they saw it was a purely Philadelphia endeavor.[7] Due to this concern, the entire CTAU had raised barely half of what Philadelphia did in the same time.[8] In order to make up the difference, at the fifth annual convention the CTAU passed a resolution for every society to raise one dollar per member in order to help cover the costs.[9] By the time the fountain was completed it would end up costing $54,000, with the statues going $5,000 over budget.[10]

CTAU Fountain, Herman Kirn w. John Carroll

Herman Kirn with statue of John Carroll
CHRC

As the centennial year approached, the fountain was still far from completion as none of the statues were finished and only a fourth of the granite work was done. Indeed, it was not until April of 1876 that Kirn completed the first statue of Commodore Barry and since Kirn was working in Germany, it did not reach Philadelphia until June. There were a number of reasons for the delays including payment debates between the CTAU and Kirn as well as problems with the marble that Kirn received.[11] Due to these delays, when the CTAU had the official dedication and celebration parade on July 4th 1876, only Barry was installed. However, the rest of the fountain was ready, so Governor John Carroll of Maryland was able to turn the water on, which flowed into the 16 drinking basins.[12]

 Centennial Exhibition from Observatory, George's https://libwww.freelibrary.org/digital/item/2278

Centennial Exhibition from Observatory, George’s Hill (note the single statue on the left pedestal)
https://libwww.freelibrary.org/digital/item/2278

As the centennial year and the exhibition came to a close, the fountain still remained unfinished. It would not be until March of 1877 that the other three corner statues were finished and the statue of Moses would not be installed until July 4th 1877, over a year late.[13] Despite this, the fountain was considered a huge success with one newspaper stating that it was an “expression of the sterling patriotism which has ever characterized the Catholic Church in America.”[14] While the Centennial Fountain was not ready for the centennial and now no longer functions as a fountain, it still stands as a monument to the Catholic Total Abstinence Union and the work of Catholics in America.

CHRC

Photo by Colin Varga

Visit the archives to see more images and information on the building of the fountain and the centennial celebrations.

  • [1] Joseph Gibbs, History of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America, (Philadelphia: 1907), 26.
  • [2] Daria Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force: The Catholic Total Abstinence Union of American Centennial Fountain,” Master’s Thesis (University of Pennsylvania, 2002), 7.
  • [3] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 34.
  • [4] Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force,” 25.
  • [5] Ibid., 31-32.
  • [6] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 34
  • [7] Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force,” 22.
  • [8] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 34.
  • [9] Ibid., 34.
  • [10] Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force,” 24.
  • [11] Gasparini, “A Celebration of Moral Force,” 40.
  • [12] Gibbs, History of the Catholic, 40.
  • [13] Ibid., 45.
  • [14] Ibid., 42.